List of Precious Stones

A Beautiful Gemstone Gift – 

Diamonds and other gems always make a lady feel wonderful.  Here is a list of precious stones that will thrill every ladies heart.  

A list of precious tones

A beautiful gemstone always touches a ladies heart

Every young girl’s heart will be thrilled and beating with joy when her beloved presents her with a beautiful gemstone gift; a shimmering  precious stone set in an engagement or wedding ring!   It is generally considered that there are four main classes of precious stones; these are the Ruby, the sapphire, the emerald and the diamond. 


The four Cs of Connoisseurship

Among the list of precious stones, All colored gemstones, are graded using four basic (-c) parameters.   These are Colour, Cut, Clarity and Carat weight.  Before the 20th century, jewelers used the term water, as in “a gem of the finest water”, to express the combination of two qualities: color and clarity.   Normally In the grading of coloured gemstones, colour is by far the most important criterion.

Stone Colour

– Color is  the most important value-setting factor for gemstones. All gems have a preferred color or a relatively small range of preferred colors. The more the color varies from this range — lighter or darker, more vivid or less — the less valuable the stone is.   The Color in gemstones breaks down into three components,   These components are Hue Saturation and Tone.  

  • Hue is most commonly understood as the “colour” of the gemstone.  This refers to the impression of color that is usually noticed immediately, such as red, yellow or blue
  • Saturation refers to the degree of purity of the hue.

  •  tone is the lightness to darkness of the hue.

Stone Cut

The ‘cut’ does not simply refer to a gem’s shape.  When gemologists say “cut,” they are talking about a gemstone’s proportions; these are its depth and its width and also the uniformity of its facets.  These are all the characteristics controlling the durability and other qualities you’re looking for.

Stone Clarity

–  The term ‘Clarity’  is used to describe the absence or presence of flaws inside or on the surface of a gemstone.  The main gemstone clarity scale is based on white diamonds rather than colored gemstones. The colored gemstone clarity scale is different.   It is difficult for colored gemstones to have just ONE clarity scale since for colored gems the clarity scale varies according to the TYPE of gem.  See the colored gemstone clarity scale.

Carat Weight

 The size of a gemstone is measured, not by its dimensions. It is measured by weight.  The traditional  unit of measurement for gemstones, ( 1 Carat)  is equal to approximately 0.2 grams. 

Up to a certain point, the larger a stone is, the more rare it is and the higher the price it will command. For stones that commonly occur in larger sizes, the value may decrease if the gem reaches a size that makes it impractical for jewelry use. Source: Gemological Institute of America.  For convenience gemstones dimensions are given in millimeters for describing the general size and shape of a stone.


Sapphires make a beautiful gemstone gift.  Sapphires are very popular in the list of precious stones in jewelry.  They are typically the blue gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, which is an aluminium oxide.  The finest blue sapphires are very expensive!



These gems are remarkably hard,  third only to the diamond and the moissanite in hardness.  Sapphire gemstones can be found  naturally, by searching through certain sediments found in Eastern Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, China, Madagascar, East Africa and North America.  They  can also be manufactured industrially by a simulated environment of the natural crystallization process.  Sapphires are truly beautiful; they make a beautiful gemstone gift and your bride will love to receive such a beautiful ring.   Select the image on the right to view beautiful Sapphire rings in full 360 Degrees view.  These can be purchased with a 30 Day RETURN Guarantee.


Sapphires of Other Colours – As well as blue sapphires, yellow and green sapphires are also commonly found.  As the quantity of chromium in the corundum increases, pink sapphires also are obtained and these deepen in colour as the quantity of chromium present escalates.   The commercial price of these pink sapphires becomes greater as their pink colour intensifies and they tend to become the colour of rubies.   



Sapphires can also occur in shades of orange, brown and they can also be colourless.  Such colourless sapphires are sometimes used as diamond substitutes in jewelry.   Natural padparadscha (pinkish orange) sapphires often draw higher prices than many of even the finest blue sapphires.  Recently, more sapphires of this colour have appeared on the market as a result of a new artificial treatment process called “lattice diffusion”.


The ruby  is the most famed red gemstone among the list of precious stones.  This precious stone makes such a beautiful gemstone gift because of its hardness, durability, luster, and rarity.  Due to the special allure and historical significance of the ruby it has always been classified as an individual gemstone in its own class.  However, the ruby is actually a red variety of the sapphire and both stones are varieties of the same mineral corundum.   The ruby then, is the red variety of corundum, while every other variety of corundum is classed as a sapphire displaying every other corundum color.  In the USA  a minimum color saturation must be met in order to classify a corundum gem as a ruby.  If this minimum colour saturation is not met then the stone is referred to as a pink sapphire.  There are transparent rubies of large sizes that are even rarer than Diamonds.



The Emerald – Emeralds are green by definition and derive their name from the  ancient Greek word smaragdos, meaning green.

EMMMEEERRRRRAALLDDDDDWith its beautiful green lustre the Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl.  The stone’s green colour is derived from very small ( trace) amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.   In order to be classified as a top gem, an emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue, but also a high degree of transparency.

In grading emeralds, clarity is considered a close second to the all important criterion of hue.  Both clarity and hue are necessary conditions and a fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue, but also a high degree of transparency before it can be considered to be a top gem.

Emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green; of course the primary hue must necessarily be green.  Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds.  Only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emerald whereas light-toned gems are known instead by the species name green beryl.  The finest emerald are approximately 75% tone on a scale where 0% tone would be colorless and 100% would be opaque black. In addition, a fine Emerald should be well saturated; the hue of an emerald should be vivid.

Countries of Origin For Emeralds – Columbia is by far the world’s largest producer of emeralds, constituting 50–95% of the world production.   Emerald production in Colombia has increased drastically in the last decade, increasing by 78% from 2000 to 2010. 

Zambia is the world’s second biggest producer, with its Kafubu River area deposits (Kagem Mines) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Kitwe responsible for 20% of the world’s production of gem quality stones in 2004.

Emeralds are also found all over the world in the following countries:   Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, Chinah, Egypt, Ethiopia, France,  Germany, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Kakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.   In the US, emeralds have been found in Connecricut, Montana, Nevada, North Carolina, and South Carolina and The Yukon.

The Diamond

– The diamond is an extremely hard precious stoneThe diamond has the highest hardness of any bulk material and this hardness gives it a leading place in many major industrial applications.  These include in the cutting and polishing of tools and the scientific applications.   It is a favourite gemstone in the jewelry business, in wedding and engagement rings and decorations of women’s clothing.  The diamond is not easily affected by impurities but small amounts (about one part per million ) cause the diamond to shine with differing colours.   Most natural diamonds are formed at high temperature and pressure at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 118 mi) in the Earth’s mantle.  The diamond is the “real standard” for clarity.  The white diamond sets the main clarity scale.  

The Zirconia Gem

Cubic Zirconia (CZ) gems are synthetic gems manufactured in the laboratory.  They have become extremely popular since they are hard and optically flawless.   CZ can be transformed into the same popular cuts and shapes that are used for diamonds and other colored gemstones.  This fact, together with their lower cost, durability and close likeness to the diamond CZ stones have caused them to become the chief commercial competitor to the diamond.  

The CZ stone has a cubic crystalline form which though usually colorless can be made in a variety of different beautiful colors.Screenshot_2
Screenshot_3The colour variations are made in manufacturing synthesis by the additions of trace elements called ‘dopants’ .  
The table to the right lists the various colors obtained by the addition of various of these dopants.

Comparison of Zirconia To The Diamond

A chunk of cubic Zirconia is heavier than a diamond of the same size, but not as hard.   (CZ is rated at 8.5 of the Mohs scale, versus diamond (the hardest substance) at 10).    Some of today’s Cubic Zirconia are coated with a product that makes the stones more durable and lessons their fire making them look and have composition very much like true diamonds. In fact Cubic zirconia actually produces more flashes of color (fire) than does a diamond. Sometimes they are so similar that only a a jeweler would know the difference!  
When you shop for CZ jewelry, the store will probably list a carat weight, but may call it a ‘diamond equivalent.’    This is to help you understand how the (heavier) CZ would compare to a diamond of the same visual size.

Grades of Zirconia

The quality of CZ’s manufacture varies — some types are less desirable than others. Cubic zirconia is evaluated using the same qualities that diamonds and other gemstones are graded by: the Four Cs.   ( These are color, clarity, cut and carat weight).  Clarity is an important characteristic when evaluating CZ quality.  A 5 – tier system is used to designate cubic zirconia qualities. The lowest grade is ‘A’ while the highest grade is ‘AAAAA’.

Suitability as Engagement Rings

Among the list of precious stones, Zirconia is somewhat less durable than a diamond and so over time is more likely to become scratched.   However. if you cannot budget a diamond or other very durable gem, an engagement ring set with a cubic zirconia is be an excellent alternative!  





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